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    A weld neck flange (also known as a high-hub flange and tapered hub flange) is a type of flange. There are two designs. The regular type is used with pipes. The long type is unsuitable for pipes and is used in process plant. A weld neck flange consists of a circular fitting with a protruding rim around the circumference. Generally machined from a forging, these flanges are typically butt welded to a pipe. The rim has a series of drilled holes that permit the flange to be affixed to another flange with bolts.

    Slip on flanges are a popular type of pipe flange designed to accept pipe into the bore/center of the flange for welding around both the Outer Diameter (OD) of the pipe and on the interior side of the connection.

    A blind flange is a solid flange as shown below. The purpose of these is to block off a section of pipe or a nozzle on a vessel that is not used. (A nozzle is typically a pipe coming out of a vessel and is usually flanged so it can be connected to valves or piping).

    Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging (a type of cold working), warm forging, or hot forging (a type of hot working). For the latter two, the metal is heated, usually in a forge. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to hundreds of metric tons. Forging has been done by smiths for millennia; the traditional products were kitchenware, hardware, hand tools, edged weapons, cymbals, and jewellery. Since the Industrial Revolution, forged parts are widely used in mechanisms and machines wherever a component requires high strength; such forgings usually require further processing (such as machining) to achieve a finished part. Today, forging is a major worldwide industry.